Broccoli Sprouts and Their Effect on Breast Cancer

Broccoli Sprouts and Their Affect on Breast Cancer

'Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts and cabbages contain many phytochemicals, vitamins and minerals. In fact, in the late 90’s, published studies indicated that there was a link between the consumption of cruciferous vegetables and lower risk for breast cancer.

More recently, the nutrients in broccoli sprouts and their protective effects against multiple types of cancer have seen renewed interest within the research community.

One of the key components of broccoli sprouts is a compound called sulforaphane. Broccoli sprouts that are specifically 5-6 days old contain over 100 X’s more sulforaphane than the mature plant.'


Amazing Health Benefits of Pumpkin Seeds

pumpkin seeds pepitas 150x150 Health Benefits Of Pumpkin Seeds

'Among the many benefits of pumpkin seeds, they are the only seed that is alkaline-forming in this world of highly acidic diets.
Did You Know? History and Interesting Trivia
  • Pumpkin seeds were discovered by archaeologists in caves in Mexico that date back to 7,000 B.C.
  • North American tribes were the very first to observe the particular miracle in pumpkin seeds. Pumpkins and their seeds were an important Native American Indian food used for their dietary and medicinal properties.
  • Pumpkin seeds are called pepitas in Mexico and they are a trademark of Mexican cuisine.
  • Pumpkin seeds were very popular in ancient Greece.
  • The nutrition in pumpkin seeds improves with age; they are among the few foods that increase in nutritive value as they decompose. According to tests made at the Massachusetts Experimental Station, squash and pumpkin seeds stored for more than five months show a marked increase in protein content.
  • Pumpkin seeds are high in calories, about 559 calories per 100 g.'  Source-Prevent Disease

Bulk Raw Pepitas    (Shelled Pumpkin Seeds)

'The pumpkin is not just an insipid tasting vegetable which is sliced and diced up in Halloween. Doctors have discovered many essential health benefits of pumpkin. However, if the vegetable is itself so healthy, its seeds are also quite nutritious. Pumpkin seeds are being sold in packets in supermarkets and departmental stores. Dietitians also recommend eating pumpkin seeds. Here are some of the main health benefits which one can gain by eating these seeds.'


EWG’s dirty dozen and clean 15 guide to food safety

'Eat your fruits and vegetables! The health benefits of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables outweigh the risks of pesticide exposure. Use EWG’s Shopper’s Guide to Pesticides™ to reduce your exposures as much as possible, but eating conventionally-grown produce is far better than not eating fruits and vegetables at all.

The Shopper’s Guide to Pesticides in Produce™ will help you determine which fruits and vegetables have the most pesticide residues and are the most important to buy organic. You can lower your pesticide intake substantially by avoiding the 12 most contaminated fruits and vegetables and eating the least contaminated produce.'

5 Reasons to Avoid Plastic Containers

'The great American novelist Normal Mailer once said, “I sometimes think that there is a malign force loose in the universe that is the social equivalent of cancer, and it’s plastic. It infiltrates everything. It’s metastasis. It gets into every single pore of productive life.” You would think this was a recent quote, something he might have said after the green movement became popular. But no – he said this in 1983, before America’s obsession with everything plastic was even close to reaching its peak. What amazing foresight he had.'


Teflon -- It's Not Just the Pans

15 Reasons Why The Obamacare Decision Is A Mind Blowing Disaster For America

'You can almost always count on the Supreme Court to do the wrong thing.  In fact, just about every major decision by the U.S. Supreme Court over the last 40 years has been bad for America.  Many were hoping that the Supreme Court would strike down Obamacare, but the truth is that we all should have known better than to expect them to get something right.  
So now America is headed for a complete and total disaster as Obamacare is fully implemented over the next several years.  Obamacare is going to absolutely shred the infrastructure of our medical system, it is going to send health insurance premiums soaring, it is going to dramatically expand the size and the scope of government, it is going to fundamentally alter the relationships between doctors and their patients and it is one of the largest tax increases in U.S. history.  Not only that, it is also going to add about a trillion dollars to our national debt over the next decade. 

So no, the Obamacare decision is not good news.  Obamacare was one of the worst pieces of legislation in American history, and now we are stuck with it.
It was a 5-4 decision to uphold Obamacare, and the swing vote was Chief Justice John Roberts who was appointed by George W. Bush.'



'In recent articles, I’ve revealed a smoking sizzling gun located on the FDA’s own web site (for all articles on this breaking story click here).

Google “FDA Why Learn About Adverse Drug Reactions” and you’ll find the page. The FDA is completely aware their approved medical drugs are killing 100,000 Americans a year. THAT’S what’s on that page.

How can all those dangerous drugs the FDA certifies as safe move through the pipeline of approval and get to the public?
Yes, we all know that some doctors who sit on FDA panels have financial ties to the very companies whose drugs they are okaying. But the story goes much deeper than that.'


'Vitamin B is sometimes called the "happy vitamin," and for very good reason. Vitamin B is a dietary powerhouse, boosting energy levels and enhancing performance of nearly every system in the body. Hundreds of delicious and abundant foods are packed full of vitamin B, ready to unleash the raw power in even the most timid consumer.'


Study Disproves CDC's Primary Justification for Vaccination

antibody theory debunked

'The discovery that antibodies are not required for protection against infection, while counterintuitive, is not novel. In fact, not only are antibodies not required for immunity, in some cases high levels are found in the presence of active, even lethal infections.  For example, high serum levels of antibodies against tetanus have been observed failing to confer protection against the disease.  A report from 1992 published in the journal Neurology found severe tetanus in immunized patients with high anti-tetanus titers, one of whom died as a result of the infection'


Pineal Gland – Our Third Eye: The Biggest Cover-Up in Human History

'The pineal gland (also called the pineal body, epiphysis cerebri, epiphysis or the “third eye”) is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. It produces the serotonin derivative melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions. Its shape resembles a tiny pine cone (hence its name), and it is located near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two rounded thalamic bodies join.
The Secret : What they don’t want you to KNOW!'


Hospitals Don’t Have a Clue

'It is not going too far to observe that the medical industry is in the grip of madness. Modern medicine has lost its balance making hospitals one of the most dangerous places to be. They are often places that increase our chances of death through medical negligence and ignorance. Certainly they are places that threaten most patients and even countries with bankruptcy because most people and governments can ill afford a form of medicine that is in and of itself a mistake.

Hospitals have served as the cornerstone of modern healthcare systems around the world. Most people today are born in hospitals. Hospitals are those places that touch us most intimately during episodes of severe sickness or disease. Hospitals are predominately where our loved ones go to die and where the rest of us go to see our loved ones suffer agonizing deaths.'


Transhumanism takes leap: 3 GM human babies born in US

'The world’s first genetically modified humans have been created, it was revealed last night.
The disclosure that 30 healthy babies were born after a series of experiments in the United States provoked another furious debate about ethics.

So far, two of the babies have been tested and have been found to contain genes from three ‘parents’.
Fifteen of the children were born in the past three years as a result of one experimental programme at the Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Science of St Barnabas in New Jersey.'


CDC's revised swine flu death estimates a fairy tale scare story

'In my years as an investigative medical reporter, I've developed a rule of thumb when dealing with the US Centers for Disease Control: 

If they're not lying, they're lying.

I've found this guideline works out well. It's almost magic.

For example, at the so-called height of the Swine Flu epidemic, in the summer of 2009, CBS News exposed the fact that the CDC, in an egregious dereliction of its duty, had stopped counting Swine Flu cases. The CDC just assumed people arriving at hospitals or doctors' offices with anything resembling the flu had Swine Flu.'


The Importance Of Probiotics!

The Ideal Way to Optimize Your Gut Health

by Dr. Mercola

'You can ferment virtually any food, and every traditional culture has traditionally fermented their foods to prevent spoilage. There are also many fermented beverages and yoghurts. Quite a large percent of all the foods that people consumed on a daily basis were fermented, and each mouthful provides trillions of beneficial bacteria—far more than you can get from a probiotics supplement.

Here's a case in point: It's unusual to find a probiotic supplement containing more than 10 billion colony-forming units. But when my team actually tested fermented vegetables produced by probiotic starter cultures, they had 10 trillion colony-forming units of bacteria. Literally, one serving of vegetables was equal to an entire bottle of a high potency probiotic! Fermented foods also give you a wider variety of beneficial bacteria, so all in all, it's your most cost effective alternative.'


Genetic Evidence that Antioxidants Kill Cancer

'Researchers of Jefferson’s Kimmel Cancer Center have produced genetic evidence suggesting antioxidant drugs could help prevent and treat cancer. With research already showcasing the powers of various cancer fighting foods, this research further shows how dangerous mainstream medical testing and treatments can be outranked by nature’s gifts.

“Antioxidants have been associated with cancer reducing effects—beta carotene, for example—but the mechanisms, the genetic evidence, has been lacking,” says lead researcher Michael P. Lisanti, M.D., Ph.D.  “Now we have genetic proof that mitochondrial oxidative stress is important for driving tumor growth.”'


Hibiscus Among Foods that Help Lower Blood Pressure

hibiscus 235x147 Hibiscus Among Foods that Help Lower Blood Pressure

''Rather than a plastic bottle from the pharmacy, your next ally in the battle against high blood pressure might come from your garden. Revealing that hibiscus rests among the many foods that help lower blood pressure, multiple studies have shown that drinking tea made from the flowers of hibiscus sabdariffa effectively lowers blood pressure in individuals whose levels put them at increased risk of stroke, heart disease and kidney failure.'



(Dr. Bones says: 'This well-written and highly useful article was submitted by our reader JIM SAWYER, and tells you the myriad ways that baking soda makes sense to accumulate in bulk for survival situations.  I have a ton of this stuff to help maintain sanitary and hygienic condition in our retreat.  Jim calls himself an old coot; well, we need more old coots around like him.  Me, I spend most of my time drooling on my shoes….')

The world is on the brink of destruction and I have all my preps together; my water, food, fire making gear, guns and ammo, 3 different combat knives, 5 types of camo, water filters, night vision goggles, camping gear, a bug out vehicle, a bug out location and a plan. I also have 20 pounds of baking soda.

Read more..

Bi-Polar Disorder: Why is it So Common and How to Alleviate it

'If ever there was a truly American psychiatric condition, Bi-polar disorder (aka Manic-depressive disorder) is it. Everything about Society USA promotes such a condition from our youngest ages. As we unpack the several components of the mental and emotional baggage associated with Bi-polar disorder (BPD), you’ll quickly see how easy it is to manage … and then be free of altogether.
Let’s take a close look at the cultures in which BPD is most prevalent. Clearly, we find it showing up in societies which have a high incidence of addictions. '


Urgent Must View: Jane Burgermeister - pandemic update 25 June 2012

Study: Radiation Therapy Can Make Cancers 30x More Malignant

Study: Radiation Therapy May Make Cancers 30x More Malignant

'Following on the heels of recent revelations that x-ray mammography may be contributing to an epidemic of future radiation-induced breast cancers, in a new article titled, "Radiation Treatment Generates Therapy Resistant Cancer Stem Cells From Aggressive Breast Cancer Cells," published in the journal Cancer July 1st, 2012, researchers from the Department of Radiation Oncology at the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center report that radiation treatment actually drives breast cancer cells into greater malignancy.'


Dr. Gabor Maté: "When the Body Says No: Understanding the Stress-Disease Connection"

'The Vancouver-based Dr. Gabor Maté argues that too many doctors seem to have forgotten what was once a commonplace assumption - that emotions are deeply implicated in both the development of illness and in the restoration of health. Based on medical studies and his own experience with chronically ill patients at the Palliative Care Unit at Vancouver Hospital, where he was the medical coordinator for seven years, Dr. Gabor Maté makes the case that there are important links between the mind and the immune system. He found that stress and individual emotional makeup play critical roles in an array of diseases. [includes rush transcript]'


11 healthy instant energy boosters

'Here are some energy boosting ideas that won’t wreck your kidneys or liver, as recommended by experts.

1. Tap Your Thymus

“Your thymus is located at center top of your chest, below the collar bone, between your breasts. When tapped it triggers the production of T-cells, boosts energy, relieves stress, and increases strength and vitality,” says Marian Buck-Murray, a nutrition coach and Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) practitioner in Maplewood, New Jersey.

For an instant boost of energy, Buck-Murray recommends tapping your thymus with your fingertips for 20 seconds, while slowly and deeply breathing in and out.'


Can Earthing Reduce Snoring?

'It’s called “earthing.” What once was perhaps the most natural state of human existence, being “earthed” or “grounded” has become quite rare in our era of rubber soled shoes and insulated living. Simply put, earthing is making sure your body is electrically grounded to the earth. Among it’s many benefits, it turns out that earthing can actually help reduce snoring!

When I first read through my copy of Earthing: The Most Important Health Discovery Ever?, I got hung up on all the sleep benefits of earthing. As a mother who has had a steady 8+ years of regularly interrupted sleep (I’ve been pregnant or nursing this whole time), it’s not hard to imagine why I found all the sleep benefits so appealing. Anything that can improve the quality of the sleep I do get is paramount.

So when my mom suggested that my dad’s snoring is greatly reduced when he sleeps on his earthing sheet, I said “Really? Are you sure? Why is that?”'


The aging brain: Why getting older just might be awesome

You can seek out new environments that support your insights and creativity, experts say.

Believing in your power

'So is the future bright for the older would-be innovator?
Absolutely, says Taylor, the picture is rosy. But as with any rose, there are thorns.

Debra Dunn, an associate professor at the was a senior executive at Hewlett-Packard for 22 years.

Steeped in Silicon Valley culture, Dunn says: "Some of the most wonderfully innovative engineers I have known were older-timers."

Ultimately, though, Dunn believes that older people's perceptions of their own ability to contribute become powerful predictors of what they can and cannot achieve.

"What you think, you become," she quotes Buddha.

Small agrees. "The older brain is quite resilient and can be stimulated to innovate, create and contribute in extraordinary ways. We need incentives to encourage older people to continue to be creative because I think ... what they have to offer is tremendous." '


Cancer, Sulfur, Garlic & Glutathione

Descrição: organic_sulfur_MSM

'What do garlic and glutathione have in common? Sulfur! Sulfur is commonly used in Asia as an herbal medicine to treat inflammation and cancer. Organic sulfur has been studied on oral and other cancers and has been found to have remarkable benefit in anti-cancer therapy.

Sulfur is an essential element for all life, and is widely used in biochemical processes. In metabolic reactions, sulfur compounds serve as both fuels and respiratory (oxygen-replacing) materials for simple organisms. Sulfur in organic form is present in the vitamins biotin and thiamine, the latter being named for the Greek word for sulfur. Sulfur is an important part of many enzymes and in antioxidant molecules like glutathione and thioredoxin.'


Discover the Health Benefits Of Pine Pollen

Illegal Marijuana Used by 10 Per Cent of Fibromyalgia Patients: Study

'People who suffer from a medical disorder that causes chronic pain are buying marijuana on the street for relief, a new study has revealed.

The study, led by Dr. Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, a rheumatologist at the McGill University Health Centre in Montreal, appears in the journal Arthritis Care & Research.'


Mind Control and the New World Order

'We’ve all heard about the “Thought Police” and laughed because it seemed so implausible. Well, the joke is on us. Brain scanning technology is now well-advanced. In 1974, Lawrence Pinneo, a neurophysiologist and electronic engineer with the Stanford Research Institute succeeded in correlating brain wave patterns from EEGs with specific words. In 1994, the brain wave patterns of 40 subjects were officially correlated with both spoken words and silent thought at the University of Missouri. It is believed that US intelligence agencies now have a brain wave vocabulary of over 60,000 words in most common languages.'


Four Foods That’ll Re-Grow from Kitchen Scraps

'You recycle your bottles and newspapers, you upcycle thrift store finds into decor treasures, and you reuse all your plastic bags.
But do you upcycle your food scraps?
We’re not talking compost here, we’re talking re-growing food from scraps you might have tossed.
Turns out, several odds and ends you might have tossed can be re-grown into more food!'


History Shows Polio Caused by Pesticide Exposure, Then Was Eradicated by Decline in DDT Use

'One of the most common arguments people often use to defend vaccinations alleges that vaccines are responsible for eradicating epidemic diseases of the past such as polio and smallpox. But a recent investigative review put together by Jeffry John Aufderheide over at explains not only why this claim is untrue, but also why pesticides may have been responsible for spurring these disease outbreaks in the first place.

As part of a trivia series on polio, Aufderheide cites several studies showing that the widespread use of chemical pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, or DDT, and heptachlor following World War II, actual exacerbated viral disease outbreaks across the United States.'


Unexamined Drug Epidemic--the Elephant No One Wants to See

Looking for the Elephant in Your Next Home
“Prescription drug therapy stands as one of the most significant perils to health resulting from human activity.” What's the FDA doing to stem the tide of this preventable epidemic? 

'Prescription drugs are the 4th leading cause of death in the US. In any given month, 48% of US consumers ingested a prescription drug, and 11% ingested five or more prescription drugs. Americans suffer from an estimated 45-50 million adverse effects, from prescription drugs--of which 2.5 million to 4 million are serious, disabling or fatal.
QuarterWatch , May 2012 ]
So what is the FDA--the agency that licenses these drugs--doing to stem the rising tide of this preventable deadly epidemic?  NOTHING. ' 

Poison is Treatment: The Campaign to Fluoridate America

'The wide scale US acceptance of fluoride-related compounds in drinking water and a wide variety of consumer products over the past half century is a textbook case of social engineering orchestrated by Sigmund Freud's nephew and the “father of public relations” Edward L. Bernays.

The episode is instructive, for it suggests the tremendous capacity of powerful interests to reshape the social environment, thereby prompting individuals to unwarily think and act in ways that are often harmful to themselves and their loved ones. The example is especially pertinent today as Western governments withhold data and utilize propaganda techniques to suppress knowledge of new technologies and life-threatening disasters such as the still-unfolding nuclear breakdown in Fukushima.'


WiFi and EM Radiation—The Rest of the Autism Story

Child with Cell Phone Radiation

'It has been well documented, though distorted by mainstream media, that there is a clear link between vaccinations and autism along with other neurological disorders. There is, though, another factor that has recently been clearly linked to autism: wireless technology.'

'George Louis Carlo, who has a doctorate from the prestigious State University of New York, a law degree from George Washington University, and is a fellow of the American College of Epidemiology, has been a thorn in the side of the cellular phone industry. In 1993, he was granted $28 million by this industry and U.S. government agencies to study risks associated with mobile (cell) phones. His initial results indicated that there were no problems. However, by 1999, Dr. Carlo had gained significantly more evidence indicating a risk to DNA, eye cancers, and brain tumors.
Carlo developed a theory that low frequency cell phone signals are harmful to cell function. This results in cells protecting themselves by stopping movement of nutrients and waste products through the cellular membrane. Inability to move wastes outside cells results in a buildup of toxins. This led him to suspect a connection with the enormous increase in autism. His hypothesis suggests that children with autism are less able to process heavy metals, so they remain in their bodies—primarily the brain—and cause neurological damage, including autism.'

Can The Slow Food Movement Cure The Fast Food Nation?

Can The Slow Food Movement Remedy The Fast Food Nation?

'Carlo Petrini, founder of the Slow Food Movement believes, "…everyone has the right to good, clean and fair food".  

Its mission of educating and providing foundation for universal access to good, clean and fair food has been the movement’s banner since its original incarnation in the late 1980s as a committee (under a different name) protesting the opening of McDonald’s near the Spanish Steps. 

 Since then, the organization has grown into a 100,000 member movement with chapters (convivia) in over 150 countries.'


Homemade Sprouted Raw Almond Butter - Organic Recipes

'One of the problems with nut butters purchased at grocery stores is that most of them contain undesirable ingredients. Others are made using roasted nuts which removes most of the nutritional value, and lastly, most don't use organic sources which means that nuts may be pasteurized or grown in chemical environments. Here's an excellent raw organic almond butter that is healthy, delicious, cost-effective and rectifies all the short-comings of conventiona nut butters.

Marta from makes homemade raw organic almond butter using a BlendTec Total Blender, and food processor. Easy, healthy, delish, and cost-effective! The BlendTec recipe uses oil, and the food processor recipe is oil-free.'


The Devil is In The Details At the UN Conference in Rio De Janeiro

'What these people have planned is eugenics plain and simple, the Georgia Guild stones declared the earth’s population should be reduced down the 500 million people. These people think they are Gods on this earth thinking they should hold the power of life and death in their hands by their own arrogance and self delusion. This is not going to work in many parts of the world, especially here in the United States and hell no in Texas. This plan they have goes against everything in human nature and our natural God given rights. This will fall apart.

This is not a plan that promotes anything that benefits humanity, but the diabolical and wicked agenda they have planned for humanity if they have their way. They are already attacking the third world in the name of preserving Mother Earth. UN troops in Africa have been murdering innocent people and seizing the land in the name of keeping the carbon footprint down. In Mexico, the Indians were forced off their land by the UN in the name of Bio Diversity. Many atrocities have been committed around the planet, especially in the third world nations already carried out in the name of saving Mother Earth. It is nothing more than just a power grab to control natural resources so the people cannot prosper.'


High Intake of Cholesterol Shown to Actually Repair Damaged Brains

'Including high-cholesterol foods as part of a healthy diet may not be the poor dietary choice we have all been told it is, suggests a new study published in the journal Nature Medicine. It turns out that cholesterol actually helps increase production of an important component of the nervous system that facilitates proper nerve cell communication, and prevents the onset of brain diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.'


Statins Prevent Vitamin D Formation, Causing Muscle Pain & Worse

Statin Side Effects

'The chutzpah of pharmaceutical science and medical practice in presuming to control the body’s processes, without any consideration for adverse effects that can readily be predicted—such as known disorders related to inadequate Vitamin D and CoQ10—needs to come to an end.'

'Inadequate Vitamin D causes muscle pain. The purpose of statin drugs is to lower cholesterol. Is there a connection between the muscle pain that results from statins and inadequate Vitamin D?

There can, in fact, be little doubt. The connection is obvious if you know one fact: Cholesterol is required to make Vitamin D. Therefore, anyone taking statins can be expected to have a deficiency in it.
Let’s take a look at the primary conditions associated with inadequate Vitamin D and adverse effects of statin drugs:'


Health Effects of Constipation

Health Effects of Constipation

Constipation: What Is It?

'Constipation is a very serious health concern in America. Constipation and other digestive disorders affect 1 out of 5 people in America.
  • Digestive disorders are becoming more prevalent in other countries as westernized society spreads.
  • To relieve constipation, most doctors recommend laxatives which are drugs.
  • Laxatives are drugs that actually harm the digestive system they're meant to help.
  • Laxative sales in the last four years exceeded $2.7 billion.'


SenateSenate Rejects Bid to Label Genetically Modified Food Rejects Bid to Label Genetically Modified Food

'The Senate on Thursday rejected an amendment to the farm bill that would have given states the power to require labels on genetically modified food.

“This is the very first time a bill on labeling genetically engineered food has been brought before the Senate,” said Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders (I), who introduced the proposal. “It was opposed by virtually every major food corporation in the country. While we wish we could have gotten more votes, this is a good step forward and something we are going to continue to work on. The people of Vermont and the people of America have a right to know what’s in the food that they eat.”'


Top 10 Reasons I’m Not Paleo

Phil Hartman as Unfrozen Caveman Lawyer

'The paleo diet is the hottest fad diet since vegetarianism. If you’re not familiar with the movement, paleo folks eat a “paleolithic” or “caveman” diet of meat, more meat, and pretty much anything they can forage (berries, nuts and so forth). The only foods that are allowed are ones that were available prior to the dawn of agriculture 10,000 years ago.

If you’re following a paleo diet and it is working for you, more power to you. We can agree to disagree.

Here are my top 10 reasons why I’m not paleo.'


Porky Flies and Porky Pies: Slaughtering natural breeds to make way for GMO pigs

'Recently followers of Food Freedom or FarmWars or PPJ would have read of the insane and Unexplained rush to eradicate a whole lot of Old Breed and Heritage Pigs in certain AmeriKKan states by the USDA swat teams.

No sane explanations given as to why the sudden rush to remove everything they can that isn’t in a CAFO and an inbred weak pink piggy.

The sheer insanity of culling what are precious rare breeds with hugely valuable gene pools, and yeah, okay, some mongrel crosses, but owned and constrained and cared for none the less. But this campaign seemed ONLY to be targeting well cared for owned and small farmed breeders.'